The Beginner’s Guide to Vaping

The Beginner’s Guide to Vaping

May 26, 2017

Vape shops have been popping up in cities across the US for the last few years, but the technology behind e-cigarettes has been around for decades. If you’re new to vaping and want to learn more about how vaping works, you’ll find a wealth of information here on White Cloud’s blog. This series will focus on the history of e-cig technology, scientific research, vaping laws, and anything else you need to know when taking the first step into the world of vaping.

What is Vaping?

What is Vaping?

Vaping involves using a device that heats liquids to produce vapor, which the user then inhales and exhales in a fashion that mimics smoking. According to Public Health England, vaping is safer than smoking by 95 percent. Consequently, many people have taken up vaping to help them quit smoking. The liquids used for vaping, usually called e-liquids or e-juices, are mixtures of vegetable oils and artificial flavorings. Some contain nicotine while others do not.

The History of Vaping

Hon Lik

Although the electronic cigarette still seems like a relatively new technology, the idea dates as far back as 1927, when Joseph Robinson filed for a patent, which was granted in 1930. Nothing ever came about after the patent was granted and it is unclear whether or not a prototype was ever created.

Serious research into the technology began in the 1960s when Herbert A. Gilbert was granted a patent for a device that closely resembles the modern e-cig devices we see today. Although Gilbert did create prototypes for his device, they were never commercialized.

By the late 70s into the 80s, a pioneer of computers and his personal physician began developing a variation of the electronic cigarette, which did reach major retailers; however, the device was faulty and did not prove to be a promising technology for nicotine delivery. Although the device didn’t take off, the inventors are credited with contributing the word “vape” as a verb to describe the act of inhaling vapor.

By the 1990s, several patents for nicotine inhalers were filed, including the first “heat-not-burn” device developed by RJ Reynolds. This is also when the commercialization of more products resembling modern e cigarettes took place. In 1998, the FDA denied a request from a major US tobacco company to allow a variation of an e-cig to enter the market, as the FDA looked at it as an unapproved drug delivery device.

The first commercial e-cig was developed in 2003 by Hon Lik, a Chinese pharmacist whose father, a heavy smoker, had recently died of lung cancer. As a heavy smoker himself, Lik’s goal was to create a device to help wean people off of tobacco cigarettes. E cigs remained a niche market in Asia for a few years before becoming available in Europe and the US between 2006 and 2007.

Vaping Laws and Regulations

Vaping Laws and Regulations

As vaping became more popular, governments and health organizations around the world started to take notice of the growing industry. In 2008, Turkey became the first country to ban the sale of e cigs, claiming they were just as harmful as tobacco cigarettes and that “nicotine is the most dangerous element among 4,800 poisonous chemicals in cigarettes.” By the end of 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced its stance on e cigs, claiming that electronic cigarettes were not a legitimate smoking cessation aid and demanded vape companies remove any language suggesting e cigs were a safe and effective way to quit smoking. This is also when a study out of New Zealand concluded that e cigarettes were far less dangerous than tobacco cigarettes and nicotine delivery was comparable to nicotine inhalers.

By 2009, other countries began banning the importation of e cigarettes, including Australia and Jordan. In the US, the FDA began blocking e-cig shipments from abroad despite lacking the legal authority to do so. The FDA’s interference with e-cig shipments resulted in a long lawsuit that ended in favor of one of the first US-based e-cig companies and marked the beginning of the FDA’s attempts to claim authority over e cigarettes based on the Tobacco Control Act of 2009.

That same year, state and local governments in the US began passing laws to regulate vaping. In response, consumer advocacy groups, such as CASAA, began forming to push for more sensible vaping regulations.

Misinformation About Vaping Begins

Misinformation About Vaping

The backlash against e-cigs was and still is fueled by misinformation about vaping, some of which is intentionally spread by health organizations and anti-smoking campaigns. Throughout the last decade, sensational media misrepresentations of scientific studies have skewed public opinion and left most people ignorant of the real research surrounding vaping.

Since vaping looks like smoking, it’s natural for many non-smokers to have a visceral reaction to e-cigs; however, if you read the thousands of pages of medical research on the topic, it’s impossible to conclude that vaping is just as dangerous as smoking tobacco. Unfortunately, public health officials often make decisions based on politics rather than science, so they sometimes throw out the baby with the bath water by trying to ban e-cigs altogether.

The FDA has become increasingly draconian with its classification of e-cigs as tobacco products as of 2016, despite years of research pointing towards e-cigs as a safer alternative to tobacco. Consequently, e-cigs and vaping will soon be subject to the same rules that govern tobacco and smoking. Additionally, the FDA is requiring manufacturers to apply for pre-market approval for every product they make, a process that most e-cig companies simply can’t afford and will result in the decimation of 99 percent of the industry if the FDA’s vaping regulations remain unchanged.

Related: Politicians Fight to Save the US Vaping Industry

Meanwhile, governments in other countries like the UK and New Zealand are actually promoting vaping for tobacco harm reduction by encouraging smokers to make the switch. The word “vape” was even named Oxford Dictionaries’ International Word of the Year in 2014, and received an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary the following year.

The Future of Electronic Cigarettes

Today, there are hundreds of vaping devices and thousands of e juices to suit any vaper’s preferences. If you can’t find a device you like, you can even build your own. Despite herculean efforts by various world governments to stifle the availability of e cigs, the number of vapers keeps growing every year while smoking statistics continue to plummet, resulting in a huge consumer-driven industry with its own language.

Newcomers to the e-cig scene are often overwhelmed by vaping terms like “cig-a-like” and “mod,” so the next part of this series will cover vaping terminology.

Why Your Vape Tastes Burnt

May 18, 2017

Everyone who uses e cigarettes eventually experiences the infamous icky “burnt” taste when vaping. There could be a few reasons why your vape tastes burnt sometimes, but the unpleasant phenomenon is usually the result of a dry puff.

How to Avoid the Burnt Taste When Vaping

burnt taste when vaping

A few factors can cause dry puffs while vaping and although there are many different types of vaping devices, they all essentially have the same working parts: a battery to provide power to the heating element, referred to as the atomizer, which contains a coil of wire that gets heated and contains a wick to absorb the e-liquid to be turned into vapor. A dry puff can occur if the coil is heated without an adequate supply of e-liquid. The wick then becomes too hot, which produces the bitter taste. Additionally, the wick can dry out if it’s not properly positioned in the chamber.

Chain vaping can also lead to dry puffs. Not allowing the heating element a moment to cool down dries out the wick. Different types of e cigs have their own temperature control mechanisms, some of which are customizable by the user, so the quality of your hardware and how you use it also greatly impact your vaping experience.

Burnt Taste with Open Tank Systems

Vaping Mods

Open tank systems and e-cig mods are more susceptible to producing dry puffs due to the level of user customization, especially when it comes to inexperienced vapers. Improper wick installation, high battery wattage, low-quality e-liquids and old coils can all cause a burnt taste when vaping. Even the outdoor temperature can affect the performance of such devices, so it is important to understand how your vaping device works and follow tips for vaping safely.

Burnt Taste With Prefilled Cartridges

E-cigs that use pre filled cartridges are less likely to produce dry puffs, but it still happens if the wick isn’t saturated. This can occur if the cartridge is defective or almost empty. Before you get to that point, you should notice the flavor fading and the volume of vapor decreasing. If your vape tastes burnt, it’s definitely time to change the cartridge.

Are Dry Puffs Dangerous?

are dry e cig puffs dangerous

A study conducted at the University of Manchester has received media attention for purportedly proving that vaping inflames the lungs in a fashion similar to smoking. Most reports conveniently left out the researchers’ flawed methodology.

Upon testing e-cig vapor, the investigators identified acrolein, a carcinogen found in tobacco smoke. They admitted to finding “acrolein in the vapour extract, but not the e-liquid itself,“ which means that acrolein was produced during the heating process. This would only occur if the element overheated, which would result in a dry puff. Therefore, an e-cig user couldn’t comfortably vape at the temperatures needed to produce the carcinogen. Several other e-cig studies have made the same methodological mistake. The issue with such studies is the researchers do not understand vaping or the habits of vapers. Repeatedly inhaling dry puffs could indeed be dangerous; however, no vaper enjoys the acrid taste of a dry puff.

Related: Can Vaping Reduce Lung Damage from Smoking?

The Formaldehyde Debate

formaldehyde debate on ecigs

A 2015 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine received backlash from the scientific community for its misleading statements about the presence of formaldehyde in e cigs. Like the University of Manchester study, the investigators heated e cigarettes to temperatures beyond what any vaper could tolerate. Despite criticisms from fellow scientists, media outlets presented the study as factual, and anti-vaping lobbyist still cite the flawed research when promoting anti-vaping legislation.

No one is claiming that e cigs are 100 percent harmless. In fact, Public Health England looked at all of the available evidence and determined that vaping is safer than smoking by 95 percent, which means that there are still risks associated with e cigs. However, it’s also important to remember that tobacco cigarettes are known to be deadly, yet they continue to be sold everywhere in the world. Attempts to compare e cigs with traditional tobacco cigarettes are disingenuous and dangerous because they deter smokers from trying what evidence continues to suggest is a safer alternative.

Does Your Vape Tastes Burnt? Give White Cloud a Chance

Veteran vapers know that all e-cigs are not created equally. Choosing a high-quality e-cig and e-liquid is your best bet for avoiding the burnt taste when vaping. White Cloud products are designed to ensure customer satisfaction for the best vaping experience.

What is Vaping?

The Difference Between Vaping and E-Cigs

May 12, 2017

Apples and Oranges or Just a Bunch of Bananas?

We have a great many questions, comments, and conversations from our valued customers who come to us here at White Cloud. Lately, we have heard quite a few folks bring up vaping and e-cig use as completely separate things. But are they? Or aren’t they? Well, let’s sit back with a coffee, tea or sparkling beverage of your choice and see what the differences may be.

What is Vaping?

Vaping Mods

It appears that many folks consider vaping strictly as the use of larger tank and mod systems where one must maintain the coils and refill the liquids manually.

It also seems that current parlance describes e-cig use as something akin to the majority of what White Cloud offers: batteries and pre-filled cartridges, or pre-filled disposable products, which look like a traditional cigarette when in use and require no manual filling or maintenance of coils. These are often called ‘cig-a-like’ products in the industry.

We can only imagine the world of confusion those who are new to e-cigarettes may encounter. The innovation of the industry has resulted in tons of different products to choose from – all in different shapes, sizes, and colors – so it’s no wonder why the inexperienced get vaping terminology wrong.

Cig-A-Likes

The delivery systems do have their differences, though. The tank systems are generally larger (sometimes a great deal larger) than White Cloud cig-a-likes, have larger apertures to puff from, offer a boxier and bulkier body design, will operate at higher temperatures (which accounts for the larger vapor output) and will generally offer a variety of settings to fine tune the temperature and vapor output. These systems usually require the pushing of a button which then causes the liquid to heat up and turn into vapor.

White Cloud products (and cig-a-likes in general) tend to be a bit more elegant and simple with no settings or dials and come with a sleeker and less obtrusive design that works with prefilled cartridges. They also operate at lower temperatures and generally have a smaller aperture to puff from.

While the form in both of these types of products is quite different, the function is basically the same. The liquid is heated via a battery to produce the vapor we inhale. In fact, the term “vape” was named the International Word of the Year by Oxford Dictionaries back in 2014 and was officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2015. So, if you Google “What does the term vape mean?”, you will see this:

Vape Definition

And, when it comes to vaping laws – including the FDA’s vaping regulations – the laws apply to any device that heats e-liquid to produce vapor for inhalation, regardless of whether it is a cig-a-like, vape pen, or open tank system.

Now let’s look at a real world example: if you’re at the wheel of a Ford or a Buick, your experience may vary by different degrees but either way you are still driving. The same goes for the subject at hand: whether you are using a cig-a-like (like a White Cloud disposable or rechargeable) or using a larger tank and mod system, you are still vaping or using an e-cig – perhaps, cig-a-vaping? In any case, it would still be the same process even though the steering wheel is a bit different.

I hope that clears up any confusion about industry terminology. And, of course, we are always happy to hear your thoughts!

Happy cig-a-vaping!

Will FDA Vaping Regulations Change?

Will FDA Vaping Regulations Change?

May 1, 2017

As the majority of vapers are well aware, the FDA came down hard on the vaping industry with the implementation of its “Deeming Regulations” which claimed authority over vapor products. The regulations treat vapor products just like tobacco products without even considering their differences, nor the potential for tobacco harm reduction as we have seen in other parts of the world. The regulations also come with some burdensome costs that could destroy the vaping industry in the U.S. by August of 2018.

Politicians Fight to Save the Vaping Industry

Although there is building fear of what is to become of the vaping industry under the FDA’s control, there are U.S. politicians who do see the importance of embracing e-cigs for tobacco harm reduction, and they continue to fight for more sensible regulations. From legislation proposing to change the FDA’s predicate date to new legislation proposing the regulation of vapor products completely separate from tobacco products, there is still hope for saving the vaping industry.

The Fight to Change the Predicate Date

The Fight to Change the Predicate Date

To truly understand the most recent legislation proposing a change to the FDA’s predicate date under the Tobacco Control Act of 2009, let’s take a look at the history behind its creation.

The FDA Deeming Authority Clarification Act of 2015

Representative Tom Cole (R-OK 4th District) has been fighting for the vaping industry since 2015 when he introduced the first bill to change the FDA’s predicate date for vaping regulations: The FDA Deeming Authority Clarification Act of 2015 (H.R. 2958). Although the regulations were not finalized until 2016, it was common understanding that the FDA intended to regulate vapor products in the same manner as tobacco products; therefore, politicians in support of vaping saw the need to start proposing legislation to amend the predicate date before the regulations could take effect.

The current predicate date of February 15, 2007, was established with the passing of the Tobacco Control Act of 2009, when the FDA was given authority over tobacco products. Now that the FDA has claimed authority over vapor products, they are now categorized as tobacco products and are subject to the same regulations and predicate date – despite the fact that 99% of current vapor products didn’t even exist prior to 2007. As a result, in order for the majority of current vapor products to remain on the market, they must go through the extensive and costly Premarket Tobacco Application (PMTA) process. The FDA estimates the cost per application would be around $300,000 per product, while tobacco harm reduction experts estimate the cost per product could run into the millions.

To put this into perspective, let’s say a vape company sells just one product – a disposable electronic cigarette. The company most likely also offers quite a few nicotine strengths and flavors. Each combination of flavor and nicotine strength would be considered 1 product. So, if there are 24 flavors and 6 different nicotine strengths, that would be 144 different products, according to the FDA. So now let’s say the PMTA cost is at the FDA’s estimated $300,000 mark: that means the vape company would have to pay $300,000 multiplied by 144 (plus another $300,000 for the disposable e-cigarette itself) – that would be about $43 MILLION just to stay in business with 1 product in 24 different flavors and 6 different nicotine strengths!

So here’s the kicker: most vape companies sell way more products and flavors – some even equal up to more than a thousand. So let’s say a company needs to submit PMTAs for a thousand products, that would be a total of $300 million based on the FDA’s estimates. And, as if that isn’t bad enough, the PMTA approval is not guaranteed – that means a vape company could spend millions of dollars in PMTA applications, only to have the FDA deny their approval. Now you can see why experts estimate that if the FDA’s Deeming Regulations remain unchanged, then 99% of the vaping industry will be forced to shut down, leaving only those owned by Big Tobacco.

Now back to H.R. 2058: Although the legislation did gain bipartisan support with 77 cosponsors, it never made it past the House.

The Cole-Bishop Amendment

The Cole-Bishop Amendment

In an effort to move things along in the fight to change the predicate date, Representative Cole, along with cosponsor Representative Sanford Bishop (D-GA 2nd District), introduced a new piece of legislation referred to as the Cole-Bishop Amendment. Like H.R. 2058, the main goal of the amendment was to change the predicate date. The amendment was voted on during the Agricultural and Rural Development Appropriations bill hearing in April of 2016, and was adopted by the House Appropriations Committee by a 31-19 vote. Unfortunately, the amendment was abandoned after the election of the Trump Administration. Since the Republican Congress was given the option to avoid rushing through the budget bill at the end of the year and the legislative process requires legislation to be acted upon during one Congressional session, the bill would have to be reintroduced during the next Congressional session.

The Cole-Biship Amendment was expected to be attached to the FY17 Omnibus Budget, with the deadline for voting set for midnight on May 5, 2017; however, house Democrats released the FY17 Omnibus Appropriations Act press release early Monday morning which states:

The Omnibus does not include a House provision allowing thousands of unregulated tobacco products to escape full FDA review. The House provision would have exempted e-cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, hookah, cigars and other products from the Tobacco Control Act’s pre-market review requirement, allowing products to escape regulations and requirements that Congress enacted to protect the public health from the nation’s leading preventable cause of death.

This is very unfortunate for the industry and for the consumers who have come to rely on the vapor products they have been using for years. If the FDA’s grandfather date remains unchanged, vape companies must submit the costly PMTA’s for all of their products by August 8, 2018.

The FDA Deeming Authority Clarification Act of 2017

Luckily for the vaping industry, Representatives Cole and Bishop also proposed stand-alone legislation for changing the predicate date. Enter H.R. 1136: The FDA Deeming Authority Clarification Act of 2017. Similar to the abandoned Cole-Bishop Amendment, H.R. 1136 would move the FDA’s predicate date to the effective date of the Deeming Regulations of August 8, 2016. While this would allow vapor products introduced to the market after February 15, 2007, to remain on the market without PMTA approval, innovation in the vaping industry will remain stifled, as any new products introduced after August 8, 2016, would be required to obtain PMTA approval. Still, the passing of H.R. 1136 is vital for the vaping industry to keep current products on the market after August 8, 2018. You can show your support for H.R. 1136 by sending an email to your elected officials via the form provided on CASAA’s website.

The Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Electronic Vapor Alternatives Act of 2017

Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Electronic Vapor Alternatives Act of 2017

Like Representatives Tom Cole and Sanford Bishop, Representative Duncan Hunter (R-CA 50th District) has also been fighting for the vaping industry and the idea that e-cigs should be used for tobacco harm reduction. One of the most notable moments of Rep. Hunter showing his support for vaping was during a Capitol Hill hearing in February of 2016. In an effort to protest a proposed ban on vaping inflight, Rep. Hunter took a puff from an e-cigarette and proceeded to explain to other House members what vaping is and how it differs from traditional tobacco cigarettes. Unfortunately, the ban still passed by a 33-26 vote and vaping on airplanes has been prohibited ever since.

On April 27, 2017, Rep. Hunter introduced The Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Electronic Vapor Alternatives Act of 2017 (H.R. 2194). This piece of legislation would be a serious game changer for the FDA and the vaping industry: it would remove vapor products from the category of tobacco products to be regulated separately as an alternative to tobacco – something that all tobacco harm reduction experts have agreed should have been considered by the FDA in the first place. The legislation would also require the FDA to rename its center for tobacco products to “The Center for Tobacco Products and Tobacco Harm Reduction”, and would require the organization to adopt safety standards for e-liquids and vaping devices established by the American E-Liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which would go into effect one year after the enactment of the legislation. There are quite a few other provisions within this piece of legislation, all of which would be beneficial to the vaping industry and tobacco harm reduction in general. Tobacco Harm Reduction expert Dr. Michael Siegel provides a great breakdown and explanation of this new legislation on his blog titled “The Rest of the Story”.

To show your support for this game-changing legislation, you can sign the petition available on change.org.

What’s Next for the Vaping Industry in the US?

While there is no guarantee that any piece of legislation will change the FDA’s Deeming Regulations for vapor products, it seems certain that we can rest assured there are politicians on our side, along with other parts of the world that have finally embraced vaping. All we can do is hope for the best and take every opportunity to voice our opinions to our members of Congress to ensure they have the best interests for public health.

How is Vaping Viewed Around the World?

How is Vaping Viewed Around the World?

April 28, 2017

While the United States FDA and CDC have been treating e-cigarettes as a new public health threat, scientists and health officials in other parts of the world are embracing vaping for its potential to wean people off of tobacco. These e-cig advocates have rallied together behind a revolutionary strategy aimed at ending the global smoking epidemic: tobacco harm reduction.

The Quest for Tobacco Harm Reduction

The Quest for Tobacco Harm Reduction

No one disputes the terrible impact that tobacco has on society. Illnesses related to smoking and chewing tobacco kill millions of people every year. Nonetheless, users remain trapped in their addictions.

We also know that scientific research continues to suggest that vaping is far less dangerous than smoking. Studies have also shown that smokers have better luck transitioning from tobacco cigarettes to e-cigs than they do quitting smoking cold turkey or using nicotine replacement therapies like patches or gums. If smokers switched to vaping, it would be better for smokers and everyone around them.

Tobacco harm reduction, or THR, is the belief that people who use tobacco should be encouraged to adopt less dangerous habits. While this sounds uncontroversial, misconceptions and misinformation about e-cigs have led to misguided policies and regulations. Government agencies in some parts of the world, however, are encouraging THR as official public policy.

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in the UK

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in the UK

Back in 2015, Public Health England looked at all of the available research regarding e-cigs and published a conclusion that shocked most of the medical world: Vaping is at least 95 percent less harmful than smoking. In the following year, the UK’s Royal College of Physicians issued a report claiming “e-cigarettes are likely to be beneficial to UK public health” and called upon doctors to encourage their smoking patients to try vaping instead. Just a year later, the UK has already seen about a three percent decline in the smoking population according to the Office for National Statistics.

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in France

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in France

The French government has also warmed up to vaping. Tabac Info Service, the agency tasked with protecting public health, has conceded that vaping reduces and possibly even eliminates smokers’ risks for developing tobacco-related illness. The agency’s website claims that e-cigs can help people quit smoking or smoke less, and it goes as far as recommending dual use because it can help tobacco users cut their daily intake by up to nine cigarettes.

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in New Zealand

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in New Zealand

New Zealand is an example of a country that has very quickly changed its policies to accommodate the demand for e-cigs. The sale of e-liquids containing nicotine has been illegal within the country for years, but the government announced in March 2017 that e-cigs will be legalized in New Zealand for the purpose of tobacco harm reduction. This reversal in policy was announced shortly after the film A Billion Lives, a documentary criticizing government opposition to e-cigs and tobacco harm reduction, which debuted at the Doc Edge Festival in New Zealand. The New Zealand government has since started withholding funds from anti-smoking groups that oppose less harmful alternatives like e-cigs.

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in Australia

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in Australia

Unfortunately, many other governments are dragging their feet on tobacco harm reduction, and some are making it even harder to obtain e-cigs. For example, Australia has traditionally classified nicotine as a poison, so e-liquids with nicotine cannot be bought or sold within the country; however, they may be imported for personal use Despite the growing evidence that e-cigs are safer than tobacco, the Therapeutic Goods Administration recently rejected a proposal to reconsider its nicotine policies, which makes it impossible for vapers living down under to buy supplies locally. Meanwhile, tobacco cigarettes remain on store shelves.

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in the US

Vaping and Tobacco Harm Reduction in the US

As discussed in previous posts, the US is a global leader in both medical and technological research. Unfortunately, the US is also an exporter of shoddy science funded by groups who want to impose taxes and restrictions on e-cigs while allowing tobacco companies to keep profiting of off cigarette addicts.

You’ve likely seen these controversial claims: Vaping is a gateway to smoking; e-cigs cause popcorn lung; e-liquids contain formaldehyde. All of these accusations have been dismantled on White Cloud’s blog and elsewhere, yet confusion persists due to carefully orchestrated anti-vaping campaigns.

Sadly, public health organizations in the US have made the situation even worse by embracing junk science despite that e-cigs are more effective smoking cessation tools than NRTs like nicotine gums and patches. We’ve also covered the FDA’s history of approving pharmaceutical drugs with deadly side effects, yet most e-cigs companies can’t afford to even apply for approval of their products.

A full year after Public Health England’s landmark report, the American CDC compared e-cig users to sheep in a public service campaign. The organization ran an advertisement in Pasadena bearing the phrase, “Don’t follow the herd. Vaping effects are unknown, stupid sheep.” Where is all of this vitriol and hypocrisy coming from?

It’s tempting to blame ignorance, but it’s hard to believe that public health officials in the US are simply unaware of research being conducted across the ocean. In fact, plenty of research on the benefits of vaping has been performed in the US. Sadly, deep seated fear and prejudice against nicotine trumps science. We would like to see America follow the examples of countries that have embraced THR, but history casts doubt on such a future.